Webinar series II with topic “Standard Operational Procedure for Sustainable Vannamei
Shrimp Culture” was held on December 23, 2021 by FUI (Indonesian Shrimp Forum). This
session focuses on process of shrimp farm activities begin from water quality management,
feed management and probiotic treatment, health management of Vannamei and effluent
Ir Budhi Wibowo as the chairman of FUI said that webinar session I about guideline standard
operation procedurefor sustainable vanamei shrimp culture was held last month with focus
attention on pond preparation. Socialization and introduce this SOP is not only in webinar
but also through training offline that has been carried out in Banyuwangi. Hopefully next
year training about SOP for sustainable Vaname shrimp culture will be continue in other
region in Indonesia.
Sudari Pawiro, a delegation from UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development) also added
that global quality standard program has been running for 3 years and next year it will be
last year in UNIDO's program. This programs aim to improve upskill raw material during on
process sustainable vanamei culture. By applied this guideline, it can increase capacity
production and productivity in the sustainable vannamei shrimpfarm. This SOP guideline
which was written by Prof. Sukenda, has been discussed about material discussions through
FGD with stakeholders and has been had pilot project to implemented this SOP in Lampung.
The results of this pilot project has satisfactory results in productivity and quality of shrimp
products. In 2022 UNIDO will also focus on mentoring and monitoring for stakeholders,
especially farmers whose want to implement this SOP.
Talking about water quality management , there are mainly factors to be considered:
physical, chemical, biological factors. These factors are critical point in the shrimp farming
process. Prof. Sukenda explained that shifting disease in vannamei shrimp from viral disease
become bacterial disease is shifting happened to be alert. It is also necessary if farmers to
pay attention about the dominance plankton should be grow more in quantity and which
plankton that should be minimized in the pond. It should be noted that replace water and
siphoning aquaculture ponds requires acclimatization for water which intake water due to
the current declining condition of sea water quality.
Water quality management in sustainable vannamei shrimpfarm also includes effluent
management. management of effluent is also being limelight for buyers in international
market as well as it was required for global quality standards because effluent water was
indicated to pollute around the shrimp pond. The principle of pond waste management is to
convert organic matter into simple molecular forms, it is not a pollutant. Completely waste
management system with WWTP standards according to SNI standard in ponds still being
consideration for farmers due to related in several things, especially in land limitations,
financial, and complexity of the wastewater management design installation technology
used. Therefore, FUI also introduce minimalist WWTP system that can be applied to shrimp
farmers. Entering the feed management material, Prof. Sukenda explained about the
purpose of feeding shrimp, namely as nutrients for growth, organ development, and
immunity. Nutrient requirement are different at each stage and always related to
environmental changes. For example, in the transition season (beididing) in pond water
there is a significant fluctuation in water temperature. It cause shrimp has more susceptible
to illness and slow growth. To deal with this, shrimp need suplement like antioxidant
supplements and possibly also taurine that is different from normal conditions. Determinate
of this feeding rate for each feed has own FR reference, but usually operational manager will
change the proportion of FR according to conditions in the field so that feed can be absorbed
Sampling management needs to evaluate health shrimp such as physical (normal or
abnormal) shrimp and setting feeding management (FR). Sampling equipment (nets, digital
scales, etc.) should not be used between ponds, but if condition isnt well, then after
sampling equipment the must be sterilized.
The principle of shrimp and enviromental health management is integrated holistic efforts
towards disease prevention starting from preparation (selection and stocking fry shrimp,
optimal preparation), good nutrition, good water quality management, consistent
monitoring of shrimp health, and reduction stressor factors in shrimp. Main diseases in
vannamei shrimp such as vibriosis, white spot, WFD, etc. It should be noted well that shrimp
immunity is non-specific so it is not mediated by an adaptive immune system but mostly
mediated by non-specific antibodies,inerd natural immunity, so vitamins and other addictive
feeds need to be given periodly.
Feed addictive that can be added is probiotics. The role of probiotics at shrimp as inhibition
the bacteria’s growth which are pathogenic to shrimp, feed supplements, and can improve
water quality. The probiotics are used must be legal products and farmers must have record
probiotics and other bioremediation during shrimp culture.
The last chapter in SOP guideline is about which it has role to prevent and protect shrimp
from potential pathogens (introduction of disease and disease agents) at every stage of the
production process. Biosecurity is categorized into 3 methods, namely physics, chemistry,
and biology. In practice shrimp culture, we approach hazard analysis and critical control
point. An example of biosecurity is bird scaring advices.
After presentation of the material given by Prof. Sukenda, a discussion was carried out by
Mr. Hardi Pitoyo, a representative from SCI (Shrimp Culture Indonesia). First, he added a
suggestion regarding the differences in the basic management of ponds in each type of pond
(semi HDPE ponds, land ponds, or HDPE ponds). He added that it is also related to the
differences in the quality standards of supply water, aquaculture water, and waste water.
For example, the quality of supply water and aquaculture pond water has different vibrio in
the two waters, TSS and TOM are also different.
Still in water quality management, DO measurement during the day is carried out in order to
evaluate how much DO is given from the results of plankton photosynthesis. The balance
between plankton and bacteria must be balanced in the pond. Regarding effluent, we often
misunderstanding about aquaculture wastewater. Different according to him,
standardization of effluent does not mean the same as industrial wastewater, but the
effluent is only an ecological change from the nature of the water so that an WWTP