Indonesia Shrimp Forum Webinar Series, SOP for Sustainable Vaname Shrimp Culture Chapter III

This webinar with topic Standard Operational Procedure for sustainable Vannamei shrimp culture session III was held on January 20, 2022 and it was being last series for socialization SOP organized by FUI (Indonesian Shrimp Forum). The materials in this session are continuation webinar before regarding about process production of Vannamei shrimp culture. The material in this session is indirectly related to technical process but it is very influential on shrimp culture process. Prof. Sukenda as presenter and author in this guideline started by explaining what chapter will be discussed, start from about management of chemicals and drugs, food safety management, animal welfare, animal escape, harvest and post-harvest, documentation and product traceability. , and socio-economic aspects.

The reference for  basic using chemicals and drugs in shrimp culture is Permen KP No. 1 at 2019. Prof. Sukenda explained that drugs and poisons can be distinguished from how doses is given only, therefore usage and method about using drug and chemical is must to accordance with the rules goverment. In choosing chemicals and drugs to be used, we must use from what types of chemicals and drugs approved by government. However, it also be considered about is the material complies with the regulations of destination export country. Furthermore, it is also necessary to learn about product labels, storage methods, how to use, and accurate dosage calculations. Incorrect dosage calculations and irregular use of drugs will cause antimicrobial resistance which has recently been being hot issues.

Prof. Sukenda also always persuade to be proactive action rather than therapeutic action. Using therapeutic agent is only used to treat a disease that has been diagnosed certainly not a preventive action. The use of drugs and chemicals also needs to be recorded, related to product traceability (production batch number). In the management of chemicals and drugs, farmers must be carefully attention to with drawl period and residues in shrimp because they are related to food safety. With drawl period can be interpreted as the interval between the last drug is given to shrimp and first time of consumption shrimp  (harvest time). Residues of these drugs and chemicals have a maximum limit level that can still be allowed in the shrimp body for consumption.

The next material is about animal welfare. Animal welfare in Indonesia still not a crucial issue, while in Europe contrarily. Animal welfare has legal basis for reference in Permen KP 2020. Examples of break concept in animal welfare according to the OIE (World Organization for Animal Health) in the UK are when outbreak comes, arbitrarily reduce feed so it cause famished, Inappropriate water quality causes discomfort for shrimp culture, etc. an example for violates this concept and being issued currently is related to artificial spawning, ablation. Prof. Sukenda also talked about the implementation of animal welfare that can be applied such as providing well-designed aquaculture facilities, acclimatization, evaluate periodly about feeding management (dodge under feeding and over feeding), minimizing stressful situations during handling, and etc.

Vannamei shrimp is alien species in Indonesia. For this reason, it is necessary to further discuss about prevention of shrimp escape into the sea (animal escape). Impact from shrimp escape is related to disease transmission in native species (windu shrimp), survival competition in the ecosystem, genetic loss, and predation. For this reason, practical steps can be taken, especially during harvest. For example, provide suitable effective filters or barriers installed at the ends of drains to the sea and pond embankments design properly so it will prevent shrimp to escape during flooding.

The next chapter explain about harvesting which it divided into 3 categories which are total harvest, partial harvest with aims to reduce shrimp population for faster growth, and emergency harvest due to disease. Contamination in harvest process can be prevent such as cleaning and sanitizing equipment will be used, having records health status of workers, ice made from water that has maximum total amount microbial limit for drinking water.

Traceability is an important component in certification. Application of traceability is closely related to the trust of buyers, especially foreign buyers. Recently, consumers are increasingly asking for product traceability because it is related to production process inputs and food safety. Tracing can be online for ponds that have been integrated with the system or recorded manually on the record sheet. Example how to applies such as when stocking, farmers must record where shrimp fry come from, quantity of shrimp fry, and the batch of shrimp fry production (if has).

The last material is about social and economic aspects. The principle in sustainable shrimp culture is shrimp culture contribute to rural development and increase benefits and equity in local communities, reduce poverty and escalate food security. Social and economic aspects must be considered at all stages of planning, developing pond operations so horizontal conflicts with surrounding communities can be avoided. Prof. Sukenda also underline that there is no child labor, forced labor or practices similar to slavery (modern slavery), no religious and gender discrimination, respect for local communities to ensure the sustainability of the shrimp culture business.

Mr. Hardi Pitoyo as a discussant and practitioner explained that the SOP guidelines that had been made were very clear and aligned. However, there was recomendations from Mr. Pitoyo regarding about we need to publish list of drugs and chemicals which are safe and unsafe to use. Some drugs in their application are very risky for work accidents even though they allowed to used. Therefore, it is better to explain in more detail about how to use, dose, frequency of usage, instructions for use, handling storage, and characteristics of the ingredients. In addition, Mr. Hardi Pitoyo also reminded to pay attention about residues after using drugs and chemicals in water by checking water, it has disappeared or not.

Regarding the animal welfare chapter, Mr. Hardi Pitoyo denied statement about fish starvation during transportation. He argues that if the shrimp and shrimp fry are not fasted during transportation, it will actually reduce survival rate during transportation because it change  water quality in the packaging. Regarding the partial harvest, it is better to add about when the right time for partial harvesting because there are still many mistakes in deciding when to do partial harvesting. According to Mr. Hardi Pitoyo , partial harvesting begin when shrimp has  good appetite and water quality also in good condition, it is wrong perception if partial harvest begin when the water quality or the shrimp health is declining. If partial harvest happened when water conditions are getting worse, then the quality of the water inside is getting more worse. For emergency harvests caused by disease agents, we have to handling process without infect other ponds.

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